Thermoelectric Cooling and Heating

Thermoelectric coolers create a temperature difference by transferring heat between two electrical junctions. During this process, a voltage is applied across the joined conductors to create an electrical current. This electrical current flows through the junction of the two conductors while removing heat at one junction, where the result is the cooling of that junction. Heat is then deposited at the other junction that is not being cooled. This process is known as the Peltier Effect.